Friday, May 22, 2020

South Africas Black Consciousness Movement

The Black Consciousness Movement (BCM) was an influential student movement in the 1970s in Apartheid South Africa. The Black Consciousness Movement promoted a new identity and politics of racial solidarity  and became the voice and spirit of the anti-apartheid movement at a time when both the African National Congress and the Pan-Africanist Congress had been banned in the wake of the Sharpeville Massacre. The BCM reached its zenith in the Soweto Student Uprising of 1976  but declined quickly afterward. Rise of the Black Consciousness Movement The Black Consciousness Movement began in 1969 when African students walked out of the National Union of South African Students, which was multiracial but white-dominated, and founded the South African Students Organization (SASO). The SASO was an explicitly non-white organization open to students classified as African, Indian, or Coloured under Apartheid Law. It was to unify non-white students and provide a voice for their grievances, but the SASO spearheaded a movement that reached far beyond students. Three years later, in 1972, the leaders of this Black Consciousness Movement formed the Black People’s Convention (BPC) to reach out to and galvanize adults and non-students. Aims and Forerunners of the BCM Loosely speaking, the BCM aimed to unify and uplift non-white populations, but this meant excluding a previous ally, liberal anti-apartheid whites. As Steve Biko, the most prominent Black Consciousness leader, explained, when militant nationalists said that white people did not belong in South Africa, they meant that â€Å"we wanted to remove [the white man] from our table, strip the table of all trappings put on it by him, decorate it in true African style, settle down and then ask him to join us on our own terms if he liked.† The elements of Black pride and celebration of black culture linked the Black Consciousness Movement back to the writings of W. E. B. Du Bois, as well as the ideas of pan-Africanism and La Negritude movement. It also arose at the same time as the Black Power movement in the United States, and these movements inspired each other; Black Consciousness was both militant and avowedly non-violent. The Black Consciousness movement was also inspired by the success of the FRELIMO in Mozambique.   Soweto and the Afterlives of the BCM The exact connections between the Black Consciousness Movement and the Soweto Student Uprising are debated, but for the Apartheid government, the connections were clear enough. In the aftermath of Soweto, the Black People’s Convention and several other Black Consciousness movements were banned and their leadership arrested, many after being beaten and tortured, including Steve Biko who died in police custody. The BPC was partially resurrected in the Azania People’s Organization, which is still active in South African politics. Sources Steve, Biko, I Write What I like: Steve Biko. A Selection of his Writings, ed. by Aelred Stubbs, African Writers Series. (Cambridge: Proquest, 2005), 69.Desai, Ashwin, â€Å"Indian South Africans and the Black Consciousness Movement under Apartheid.† Diaspora Studies 8.1 (2015): 37-50.  Hirschmann, David. â€Å"The Black Consciousness Movement in South Africa.†Ã‚  The Journal of Modern African Studies. 28.1 (Mar., 1990): 1-22.

Saturday, May 9, 2020

The New Fuss About Topics for a Persuasive Essay for College

The New Fuss About Topics for a Persuasive Essay for College All About Topics for a Persuasive Essay for College The next area of the text will be simpler to write if you've picked among the most effective persuasive essay topics as your primary subject of the text. Just stick to the guidelines stated above, and you'll be well on your way to writing a decent persuasive essay. So what do you do if you're intimidated at the idea of teaching essay. After you are aware that you will need to seek out unique persuasive essay topics so as to write the ideal text possible, it's the opportunity to consider how to study the structure of such texts. Facts, Fiction and Topics for a Persuasive Essay for College Persuasive essays are an excellent approach to encourage the reader to check at a particular topic in a different light. Deciding on the proper topic for a persuasive speech may be not such an easy matter to do as it might appear. Bear in mind that you could make funny argumentative essays if you do a few things. Persuasion is a type of art, and putting everything together to find a good stuff is actually beneficial. The very first thing you must realize searching for an ideal topic is that your opinion is the thing that matters the most. To begin writing a persuasive essay, the very first point to do is to obtain an intriguing topic that you get a keen understanding on. Probably you don't always feel prepared for a severe text or you are just tired and have zero urge to write about something complicated. In the end, keep in mind that a huge portion of being effective in persuasion is the capability to interest your audience's emotions. As soon as you settle on the subject and select the position on which you will base your essay, the remainder of the job can then begin. Medicine, particularly, is among the spheres that's changing in a manner that puts a premium on communication skills (Back et al. 2009). To help students just like you find debatable topics, we've gathered a wide selection of ideas on distinct subjects and academic levels. Students often stress about searching for utile persuasive essay tips and searching for ideas due to the fact that they feel it's an uphill job, but the crucial thing is to understand the essence and generate an appropriate outline first by planning for it correctly. Persuasive essays are among the most frequently encountered kind of assigned works whether before, during, or following your college life. When compared to other sorts of literature out there, a persuasive college structure is distinguished by its effectiveness and concentrate on convincing the readers of someone's point of view. Many students have a tendency to encounter the writing issues due to the dearth of suitable understanding. Even a student can begin a business online. Any idea can prove to be a fantastic foundation for a topic. On the opposing side, acquiring a list of good persuasive essay topics is inadequate. With all these things to argue about and for, it may be a bit overwhelming to develop a topic by yourself. Still, figuring out the very best topic for your essay isn't your only concern for a student. Since you can see, a number of the topics listed are new and handle the present issues happening in the World today. Still, you must make your topic more specific. Since you may see, locating an appropriate topic is not quite as simple as it might appear. Take notes concerning all prospective topics you are able to consider. What Does Topics for a Persuasive Essay for College Mean? To assist you craft an intriguing essay, here are a few fantastic persuasive topics for you to select from. You must settle on a persuasive essay topic which allows you to present the finest possible case. So locating the finest persuasive essay topics is critical. There are a lot of intriguing topics that could be become a persuasive essay if you take the opportunity to consider about doing it. You should utilize APA reference tools to help in writing your essay the right way or employ an expert essay writer that could write the essay employing the APA reference tools. As any guide on the best way to compose a persuasive essay will inform you, your essay has to be organized in paragraphs with a logical progression from 1 paragraph to the next. You may continue to keep your argumentative essays for your upcoming job portfolio in case they're highly graded. When prior brainstorming is finished, you can begin drafting your essay. Schools should not have anything to do with ads. To defend your subject, you might recall the effect of overloaded schedule on college grades. On the flip side, some argue that the price of college leaves students with crippling debt they'll never have the ability to repay. Students with good academic results must secure the chance to go to college free of charge.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Future Outlook and Raising Capital in the Sports Drink Market Free Essays

The approach and obstacles to raising capital and managing future change can make or break a new company that is trying to compete for market share in the sports beverage industry. According to a recent monthly labor report, most new businesses have the best chance of surviving during the first two years (Knaup, 2005). The young company must also determine how to best utilize legal services. We will write a custom essay sample on Future Outlook and Raising Capital in the Sports Drink Market or any similar topic only for you Order Now It is one thing a new business venture should not only consider but plan for. Another area of concern and attention must go to the issue of raising money to fund the business. The competitive and lucrative sports drink market has in the past been dominated by two main players, Gatorade and Powerade. Together they have long held over two thirds of the market share. However, the future outlook shows that the market is starting to include a wider variety of sports drinks that are targeting a broader range of personal needs. LJ Enterprises will utilize more than one avenue in raising capital. This will help to ensure the new company is funded well from the start in order to give it the best chance to succeed. 1. Discuss the future outlook and industry trends related to the new venture. Future Outlook and Industry Trends The future outlook for the sports drink industry involves many new companies entering the market and offering different types of non traditional sports drinks. Gatorade has been leading the market for years but has yet to really come out with a new product. They have pushed different marketing campaigns and tried to repackage their product a bit, but the formula and product remain fundamentally the same. This is where new companies are able to gain ground against the bigger and more established market leaders. One new trend in the industry is to target a specific segment of the market such as kids or athletes. The now discontinued product Gatorade Tiger was one way the market leader and our competitor tried to innovate and take advantage of this trend. This product was heavily marketed to the endurance athlete and team sports. Powerade is now targeting the kid segment of the market with their product called Powerade Play for kids. This product contains 20% of the Daily Value (DV) of four B vitamins, 100% DV of vitamin C, 20% DV of zinc, a trademarked electrolyte system and 25% less sugar (Spano, 2005). Another industry trend being seen involves the concept of ‘nutrient timingâ€Å". This involves drinking certain nutrients around the time of physical exertion or exercise to allow for shorter recovery time and for specific needs such as strength training or endurance. So far, this practice has focused mainly on carbohydrates and protein but in the future the trend will be nutrient timing for non-nutrients. The most well known sports drink currently involving nutrient-timing are protein based recovery drinks or Ready-to-Drink beverages. LJ Enterprises new product offering, Sore-B-Gone will be a perfect fit for this emerging market trend. 2. Discuss the legal or concerns related to the venture idea Legal Services and Industry Concerns In most cases the entrepreneur will need to protect his or her intellectual property. The practice of acquiring patents, trademarks, copyrights, and trade secrets will ensure this property is protected by the courts and through the services of an attorney. An attorney can be specialized in one area such as patents or real estate. It is important for the attorney and the client to develop a good working relationship. This can help to give the entrepreneur much needed confidence and help to ease some of the risk launching a new venture. One if the first things a new company will want to do after hiring the services of an attorney is to have a conversation about patents. Most of the work will be done by the lawyer who will work to secure a patent for the new company. In doing this, the entrepreneur gains exclusivity regarding his or her invention for a limited amount of time. The time that the invention or product will be patented depends on which type of patent is acquired. A Utility patent will grant the owner protection for twenty years from other people or businesses making, using, or selling the invention that has been patented. This type of patent usually involves a process such as the mixture of ingredients. It is this type of patent that LJ Enterprises will seek in order to protect its intellectual property, such as our drink mixture. Another type of patent is called a design patent. This one has a term of fourteen years and involves the appearance of an object. For example, if a company wanted to protect a product or container configuration, this would be the type of patent that would be needed. It will be very important for any company looking to sell internationally to file for an international patent. This will protect the company from unforeseen laws or taxes involving the many different countries. 3. Discuss the approach and obstacles to raising capital for the new venture. Approaches to Raising Capital In the beginning stages of starting a new business venture, the entrepreneur will face many difficult tasks. One of these tasks will be deciding how to raise the necessary funds in order to get their product or idea off the ground. The best course may involve one or many sources depending on the business needs and initial capital already available. One easy and logical first step would be to ask friends and family. In most cases this group is excited about their relatives or friends taking on a new venture with the chance of making a lot of money. However, this approach can damage relationships if certain expectations are not met and/or investments are not paid back as promised. Another problem is that the capital borrowed is often small and not enough to cover all the initial costs. Another more effective approach is through Angel investors. This group has more money available to give the new business but one of the downsides is they may want a stake in ownership, stock options, or some other kind of compensation up front. This will not be an ideal option for the owner who wants full ownership of the company. Yet another option is the standard bank loan. The two key elements to obtaining this type of loan is the business owner’s personal credit history and having a soild bsuiness plan. It is the ntention of LJ Enterprises to first enlist the help of a wealthy uncle with very deep pockets. This initial investment from Uncle Taylor will be around $30,000. A decent sum of money but not enough to do all the things the company initially wants to do. The company will also need to try and secure a small business loan from a bank. We will ask for $50,000 in order to cover all the start up costs and to help out with daily living expenses while getting the product launched. Obstacles to Raising Capital One of the major setbacks to getting capital for a new business venture is the huge risk involved with such an undertaking. However, this risk can be somewhat averted if the business owner can create a good pitch to lenders and managing the money effectively once the loan is secured. Another obstacle to raising capital is not asking for enough money in the first place. In a 2004 U. S. Bank study of reasons for small business failures, 79 percent cited â€Å"starting out with too little money† as one of the causes of their collapse (Sugars, 2007) . Other barriers to getting the amount of capital needed are failure to get the proper legal documents, poor cash flow management, having too many lenders, and focusing too much on the idea and not enough on management. LJ enterprises has considered all of these factors and intends to due the following to increase its chances of being properly funded. First off, we intend to limit our lenders to only two. Secondly, an accountant will be hired to manage the cash flow and overall record keeping. Lastly, the services of an attorney will be utilized from the beginning so that no important legal documents are missed. The company hopes to maximize the chances of gaining its initial capital by following these guidelines. Conclusion Currently one of the most important trends in the sports beverage market is the concept of nutrient timing. It is for this reason that we feel our product, Sore-B-Gone, is being introduced at the right time. It is vitally important to the health and future on the company that the services of an attorney are obtained right from the start. An attorney can not only assist but increase the changes of the new venture obtaining much needed initial capital. If the new company can avoid some of the obstacles to obtaining capital such as managing money effectively and following the advise of the attorney, the company may just survive and thrive in the marketplace. How to cite Future Outlook and Raising Capital in the Sports Drink Market, Papers

Wednesday, April 29, 2020

Proposal MacArthur Foundation

MacArthur Foundation Awards Prizes is a program that was founded by Catherine T. and John D. The title of the award is a MacArthur’s Fellowship Program which is also and more known as Genius Grant (John et al, 2008).Advertising We will write a custom proposal sample on Proposal: MacArthur Foundation specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Such a title was given because the nominees for these awards are considered genius. These awards require a short-listing of nearly forty candidates who are awarded prizes from the United States of America. However, a potential candidate must possess certain qualities of artistic production in order to feature in the list of nominees for the awards. Moreover, the piece of art one represents should be original and attract attention. The winners of the awards are those whose age ranges from eighteen years to eighty two years (John et al, 2008). Analytically, an individual nominee needs to possess gr eat developmental capabilities, original creativity of ideas, educational values, objective behavior, and skills for promotion of social relationships apart from being a genius in order to qualify for the awards. The nominees for awards are not allowed to apply for the awards themselves. This means that the nomination body gives recommendations to a committee of a few people who are in charge of making decisions regarding the list of nominees. After the committee makes a decision, they pass the list to the Board of Directors as well as the President of the Awards. The nominees carefully look at the decision of the committee after receiving a phone call from the foundation. On the other hand, the criterion used to select the nominees is based on the creativity and originality of their pieces of work. One does not only have to consider the creativity of the piece of work but its originality as well. In other words, creativity is not only about the masterpiece as such, but the informat ion the piece of work delivers to the audience. A potential nominee needs to exhibit characteristics of great social relationship and objective behavior in the piece of artwork presented in order to stand a chance of winning the award because the information displayed is important to the audience who touch or listen to the work. Therefore, the work should be socially acceptable to the society for its creator to be called a genius (Brockes, 2007). This means that it must present social values. For example, the movie â€Å"Think like a man, act like a woman† may not be considered the best movie but the impact it has on both men and women is tremendous. This makes a person who shoots the film a genius because he or she was able to affect the reasoning of a number of people. In summary, social and behavioral impact in any domain of work can be criteria for obtaining the status of the genius.Advertising Looking for proposal on art and design? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The educational value of a person can determine his or her level of creativity. The reason why a person is regarded as a genius due to his/her educational level is because education helps to sharpen individual’s wits (Harris, 2007). For example, the filmmakers win awards but information technology experts would be in a better position to create fiction. Therefore, an individual is considered a genius in case a person who lacks information and skills in the sphere of computers manages to create new ideas, in other words, the individual that lacked some necessary background information, nonetheless, invented, created or made something new. On the other hand, a potential candidate for the award can receive awards for the educational value in the domain of work generated; it may me mathematics since it passes knowledge. In summary, a domain of activity can be regarded as criterion for a genius creation depending on the educationa l level or value of the creator of the piece of artwork. A potential nominee needs to exhibit developmental capabilities in the artwork in order to be considered a genius in the award because there are works that lack tangibility but have great effects on the emotions of the audience. For example, a doctor who administers medication from a deadly disease that is known to have no cure can be considered a genius if a patient is healed after the drug administration. It happens so because the doctor invented a cure to the disease which had caused numerous deaths. This means that one should be considered a genius when their piece of work leads to a discovery. In conclusion, the program the MacArthur Foundation Awards Prizes is used to encourage people to be creative. It is also a good way of appreciating the efforts different individuals have put into their artistic works. A winner of the award is called a genius due to the creativity of the work done. This means that an individual nomin ee needs to possess great capabilities, original creativity of ideas, educational values, objective behavior, as well as skills for promotion of social relationships apart from being a genius in order to qualify for the awards.Advertising We will write a custom proposal sample on Proposal: MacArthur Foundation specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More References Brockes, E. (2007). It’s art. But is it porn? The Guardian online, 3 (7), 21-25. Harris, D. (2007). The Complete Guide to Writing Effective Award-Winning Grants: Step-By-Step Instructions. New York: Atlantic Publishing Company. John, D., Catherine, T. (2008). 30 Years of the John D. and Catherine T. New York: MacArthur Foundation. This proposal on Proposal: MacArthur Foundation was written and submitted by user Franco Klein to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Friday, March 20, 2020

How Fiber Optics Work essays

How Fiber Optics Work essays Thesis: In a fiber optic tube, the speed of light reflects from the cladding no matter what angle the fiber itself gets bent, even a full circle. Furthermore, because the cladding does not absorb any light from the core, the light waves can travel great distances. 3. Where was Fiber Optics discovered H. Transmitting Light through Fiber Optic Cables Our current age of technology is the result of many brilliant inventions and discoveries, but it is our ability to transmit information, and the media we use to do it, that is perhaps most responsible for its evolution. Progressing from the copper wire of a century ago to todays fiber optic cable, our increasing ability to transmit more information, more quickly and over longer distances has expanded the boundaries of our technological development in all areas. Fiber optic technologies are based on the same concept as the signal fires used in ancient China. Instead of sending the signals through the open air, however, a laser sends pulses of light to their destination through a thin strand of transparent glass. At the receiving end, an optical sensor decodes the light pulses with a complex set of standard codes. In some ways, it's also similar to the way people decode the dots and dashes of Morse code. In a fiber optic tube, the speed of light reflects from the cladding no mat ter what angle the fiber itself gets bent, even a full circle. Furthermore, because the cladding does not absorb any light from the core, the light waves can travel great distances. Craig C. Freudenrich, Ph.d defines fiber optics (optical fibers) as long, thin strands of very pure glass about the diameter of a human hair. They are arranged in bundles called optical cables and used to transmit light signals over long distances (par 2). Scientists at Corning Glass Works & Bell Telephone Labs, in the early 1970's, made the significant breakthroughs in optical fiber, to make it realistic to use...

Wednesday, March 4, 2020

11 Beautiful Blue Gemstones You Need to See

Beautiful Blue Gemstones You Need to See SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Out ofall the rainbow of colors gemstones can come in, blue gemstones are the most popular.There are a huge variety of blue gems, from delicate pale aquato richly saturated dark blue.Some stones are pure blue, while others include shades of violet, green, white, or gold. This guide explores of the most popular and beautiful gemstones. Each of these blue gemstones includes a chart with important characteristics,as well as average prices for each gemstone, how it is used in jewelry, and how it'sunique from other blue gemstones. If you are interested inpurchasing a blue gemstone or jewelry that includes a blue gemstone but aren't sure which type of stone to buy, our guide will helpyou easily compare different blue stones. At the end of this guide, there is also a section on how to choose the bestblue gemstone for you. The Blue Gemstones Agate Aquamarine Azurite Benitoite Blue Diamond Lapis Lazuli Sapphire Tanzanite Blue Topaz Tourmaline Turquoise 6 Key Gemstone Terms, Defined Before jumping into the different blue stones, let's clarify some of the key criteria used to assess gemstones. Criteria 1: Diaphaneity Also known as transparency, diaphaneity describes how light interacts with the surface of a material. There are three types of interactions. Transparent: Light can enter and exit the material (such asglass). Translucent: Light can enter and exit, but it gets distorted passing through the material (such asparchment paper). Opaque: Light cannot penetrate the surface (such aswood). Criteria 2:Hardness The harder a gemstone is, the less susceptible it is to damage.The Mohs scale measures mineral hardness on a scale of 1-10. Gemstones with a hardness of about 7.0 or less are often not recommended to be worn daily because of the high possibility of them getting scratched or otherwise damaged. Criteria 3: Specific Gravity Specific gravity measures the relative density of a gemstone. A one carat gemstone with a higher specific gravity will be slightly smaller than a one carat gemstone with a lower specific gravity. Criteria 4: Refractive Index Refractive index measures how light passes through a material. Gemstones with a higher refractive index appear more brilliant and â€Å"sparkly† than those with lower refractive indexes. Most gemstones have refractive indexes between 1.5 and 1.7. A refractive index above 2.0 is rare and seen only in a handful of gemstones. Criteria 5: Luster Luster refers to how a gemstone appears when light hits it. There are multiple categories of luster. The ones mentioned in this guide are: Adamantine: Mirror-like appearance; highest degree of luster Dull: Reflects little light, but can be enhanced by polishing Resinous: Appearance of resin or plastic Vitreous: Glass-like Waxy: Resembles wax Criteria 6: Price per Carat A carat refers to 20mg of a stone.For each gemstone, average price can vary widely depending on the quality and cut of the gem, but rough averages are given so you can get a senseof how expensive one stone is compared to the others.Price is based on cut and polished gems, not rough gems. Agate Color Range All shades of blue, often with other colors included Diaphaneity Translucent Mohs Scale Hardness 6.5-7 Specific Gravity 2.66 Refractive Index 1.53-1.54 Luster Waxy Average Price per Carat $0.50-$25 Agate, a banded form of the mineral chalcedony, comes in a variety of a variety of vivid colors, including the full spectrum of blue. These colors can be either natural or enhanced with dyes. Because of the potential variation in banding and color, agate has some of the widest variation from one stone to another seen inany mineral. You could purchase ten pieces of agate, and they could all look completely different from one another. Agate is also one of the cheapest gemstones on this list, and agate jewelry is often very reasonably priced.It is most common for agate stones to be used as pendants for necklaces since large pendantsincludemore bands of color than smaller pieces of agate would. Where it’s found: Agate is very abundant and found all over the world. What sets it apart: Its vivid bands often comprisinga variety of colors. Aquamarine Color Range Very light to dark blue, often with greenish hues Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Mohs Scale Hardness 7.0-8.0 Specific Gravity 2.72 Refractive Index 1.57-1.58 Luster Vitreous to resinous Average Price per Carat $10-$500 Aquamarine prices can vary widely depending on the size and quality of the stone. As with most blue gemstones, stones that are a darker, more vivid blue are generally more expensive (and rarer) than light blue stones. Aquamarine is a popular gemstone and is used in many types of jewelry, although rings are often the most popular way for them to be set. Aquamarine is also the birthstone for the month of March, which helps contribute to its popularity.Aquamarine is often found in large crystals which makes it possible for large stones to be cut, polished, and set into jewelry or purchased by collectors. The largest gem-quality aquamarine ever discovered weighed over 240 pounds. Where it’s found: Most aquamarine is mined in Brazil, with other large deposits found in Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. What sets it apart: Aquamarine stones are often highly transparent, causing them to catch a lot of light and sparkle more than other stones. Azurite Color Range Deep blue Diaphaneity Transparent to Translucent Mohs Scale Hardness 3.5-4.0 Specific Gravity 3.7-3.8 Refractive Index 1.73-1.84 Luster Vitreous or dull Average Price per Carat $10-$100 Azurite is known for its deep blue, azure color. As opposed to many other blue gemstones, azurite rarely needs to undergo treatment to enhance its color.Due to its vivid color, azurite has been used as a pigment for hundreds of years. As opposed to many other blue gemstones, azurite is not faceted. Instead, it is cut and polished into pieces known as cabochons. When put in jewelry, azurite is often combined with deep green malachite. The two minerals are often found in the same deposit. As one of the softer stones, azurite jewelry must be handled with care, or the stones must be placed in settings that protect them from bumps and scrapes. Over time, azurite’s deep blue color can fade to green; all azurite jewelry should be safely stored away from sunlight and drafts, preferably in a closed jewelry box. Where it’s found: Azurite is one of the rarer blue stones, but significant deposits have been found in the USA, France, and Namibia. What sets it apart: It’s deep azure color. Benitoite Color Range Medium to dark blue or violet Diaphaneity Transparent to Translucent Mohs Scale Hardness 6.0-6.5 Specific Gravity 3.64 Refractive Index 1.76-1.80 Luster Vitreous Average Price per Carat $250-$5000 Benitoite is one of the world’s rarest gemstones, found in just one place in the world.Benitoite has one of the highest dispersion ratings of all gemstones, including diamond. Dispersion rating measures the ability to take white light and disperse it to other colors of the spectrum. This gives benitoite its characteristic brilliance and fire. When used in jewelry, benitoite stones tend to be small due to both their high price and the rarity of the gemstone. Where it’s found: San Benito County, California What sets it apart: It’s rarity and natural â€Å"fire†. Blue Diamond Color Range Pale to dark blue Diaphaneity Transparent Mohs Scale Hardness 10.0 Specific Gravity 3.52 Refractive Index 2.42 Luster Adamantine Average Price per Carat Treated: $1,500-$,500 Naturally Colored: $10,000 -$100,000+ Diamond is most famous as a colorless stone, but blue diamonds can be created by treating clear diamonds. Also, deposits of naturally blue diamonds have been found, but they are very rare.Blue diamonds often have a light blue color, often with a greenish tint. Diamond is the hardest natural material on earth, and it also has one of the highest refractive indexes of all gemstones.Blue diamondsare nearly impossibleto damage and can therefore be used in all types of jewelry. Diamonds are one of the most expensive gemstones, and blue diamonds can command even higher prices than regular diamonds because of their rarity and the treatment required to enhance their color. Naturally blue diamonds, because they are so rare, are significantly pricier than comparable colorless diamonds. Where it’s found: Diamonds are found worldwide, with large mines in Russia, Western Australia, and Southern Africa. What sets it apart: It’s hardness, high refractive index, and brilliant adamantine luster. Lapis Lazuli Color Range Medium-deep blue, often with white and gold mottling Diaphaneity Semi-translucent to opaque Mohs Scale Hardness 5.0-5.5 Specific Gravity 2.75 Refractive Index 1.50 Luster Dull Average Price per Carat $1-$50 In contrast to the other gemstones on this list, lapis lazuli is not a mineral. Instead, it’s a rock composed of multiple minerals including lazurite, calcite, and sparkling pyrite flecks.Since antiquity, lapis lazuli has been used for jewelry and as a dye. On the famous funeral mask of Tutankhamun, the eyebrows were made of lapis lazuli. Lapis lazuli stones are often cut into cabochons and beads to be used in bracelets, necklaces, and pendants. Some pieces are also ornately carved and then used in jewelry. Where it’s found: Lapis lazuli is found in numerous countries, but Afghanistan is the world’s leading source of the stone. What sets it apart: The contrast between the deep blue stone and sparkling golden flecks often found in lapis lazuli. Sapphire Color Range Deep blue, occasionallyclear and light blue Diaphaneity Transparent to opaque Mohs Scale Hardness 9.0 Specific Gravity 4.00 Refractive Index 1.76-1.77 Luster Vitreous to adamantine Average Price per Carat $500-$5000 Sapphire is the world’s most popular blue gemstone,beloved for its deep blue color and resistance to damage. Theyare also one of the mooreexpensive gemstones on this list. Sapphires with a more vivid, saturated blue color are more expensive than paler stones, and heat treatment is sometimes used to enhance the color of a sapphire. Sapphires that have deeply saturated color without any heat treament are significantly more expensive than sapphires that have undergone heat treatment. Sapphires are widely used in all types jewelry, and, because of their durability, wearers do not have to worry about damaging the stone. Sapphire stones also often have high clarity and a brilliant cut, enhancing their sparkle. One of the most famous pieces of sapphire jewelry is the engagement ring of Diana, Princess of Wales, now worn by Kate Middleton. The ring features a 12-carat sapphire surrounded by diamonds. Where it’s found: Sapphires are found throughout the world. The three most famous countriesfor sapphire mining are Sri Lanka, Myanmar, and Pakistan. What sets it apart: It’s durability and brilliance. Tanzanite Color Range Pale to dark blue, violet Diaphaneity Transparent Mohs Scale Hardness 6.5 Specific Gravity 3.30 Refractive Index 1.69-1.70 Luster Vitreous Average Price per Carat $75-$1500 Tanzanite is one of the most newly-discovered gemstones; the single deposit was only discovered in 1967.Since then, however; tanzanite has achieved widespread popularity due to its deep blue and violet coloring.Deep blue and bluish violet tanzanite stones are the most desired (and expensive) form of the stone, but tanzanite can also come in pale hues. Most tanzanite undergoes heat treatment to deepen its blue color. Tanzanite is often used as a less expensive alternative to similarly-colored sapphire. However, tanzanite’s low degree of hardness makes it susceptible to damage, so it is often set in pendants and earrings, which are prone to fewerbumps than bracelets and rings. Tanzanite is one of the rarer gems, and some people expect deposits to run out in several decades. Because of this, tanzanite prices are expected to rise in the future. Where it’s found: Tanzanite is found at a single site, in the northern hills of Tanzania. What sets it apart: One of the most affordable deep-blue gemstones. Blue Topaz Color Range Pale to dark blue, also comes in other colors Diaphaneity Translucent to transparent Mohs Scale Hardness 8.0 Specific Gravity 3.53 Refractive Index 1.62-1.64 Luster Vitreous Average Price per Carat $5-$25 Topaz has one of the widest color ranges of any gemstone, with blue being one of the most commoncolors. Topaz’s blue color rarely occurs naturally; the stone is almost always treated to turn it blue or deepen its blue color.Additionally, topaz is pleochroic, meaning it can appear different colors depending on the direction you’re looking at it. Topaz forms some of the largest crystals of any gemstone. Brazilian deposits are particularly large, and topaz crystals have been discovered that weigh over 500 pounds and are the size of boulders. Topaz is one of the leastexpensive blue gemstones and this, coupled with its naturally large crystals, make it possible for large topaz stones to be set in jewelry at affordable prices.After topaz has been faceted, it can take such a high polish that the stone is slippery to the touch. Where it’s found: Topaz is an abundant gemstone and found in numerous countries. Significant deposits are in Brazil, Utah, and the Ural Mountains of Russia. What sets it apart: Low price and high polish. Tourmaline Color Range Light to dark blue, as well as violet-blue and greenish-blue Diaphaneity Transparent to opaque Mohs Scale Hardness 7.0-7.5 Specific Gravity 3.06 Refractive Index 1.62-1.64 Luster Vitreous Average Price per Carat Paraà ­ba: $150-$16,000 Other varieties: $5-$500 Tourmaline has one of the widest color ranges of any gemstone, and blue tourmaline can range from pale aqua to deep azure and nearly every hue in between.The most famous variety of blue tourmaline is Paraà ­ba Tourmaline(pictured above),which can come in vivid shades of blue, violet-blue, or greenish-blue not found naturally in other tourmaline stones. Paraà ­ba Tourmaline is very rare, soits prices are much higher than other varieties of tourmaline.On rare occasions, blue tourmaline also includes a cat’s eye, where light reflects off the stone in a way that resembles the slit eye of a cat. Tourmaline is used in a wide variety of jewelry, and blue tourmaline stones are often set with tourmaline of other colors for contrast and variety. Where it’s found: Paraà ­ba Tourmaline is found in Paraà ­ba, Brazil, and other forms of blue tourmaline are found in multiple sites around the world. What sets it apart: Its wide range of colors that cover nearly the entire blue spectrum. Turquoise Color Range Light-medium blue and blue-green Diaphaneity Opaque Mohs Scale Hardness 5.0-6.0 Specific Gravity 1.61-1.65 Refractive Index 2.73 Luster Waxy to subvitreous Average Price per Carat $5-$500 One of the oldest stones used for jewelry, turquoise has long been prized for its vivid sky blue and blue-green color, often highlighted by an attractive spiderweb of dark veins across the stone. Turquoise doesn’t have the sparkle and clarity of many other blue stones, but its rich color haskept it popular for centuries.When used in jewelry, turquoise is often formed into cabochons or beads. Because it’s a relatively soft stone, it can also be intricately carved for pendants and other jewelry pieces. Where it’s found:There are significant deposits in the Middle East, USA, and China. What sets it apart: It’s opaque blue-green color. How to Pick the Perfect Blue Gemstone Eachof the blue stonesabove has attractive and unique characteristics, but which one is best for you? There are fourcriteria to consider when choosing a gemstone: Price This will likely be the most important factor in picking a blue gem. You may love sapphires but don't want to spend several thousand dollars on a high-quality piece of sapphire jewelry. Browse the price ranges listed for each of the blue stones, keeping in mind that price can vary significantly depending on the size, cut, and quality of a stone. Also, if you're interested in a specific stone that's out of your price range, there are often less expensive but similar-looking alternatives. Tanzanite is often used as a substitute for sapphire, and many aquamarines have a light blue color similar to blue diamonds. If you have your heart set on a specific gemstone, you may be able to find a price within your budget by looking at smaller stones or stones with minor blemishes or discolorations (these are often very difficult or impossible to see with the naked eye). A jeweler can explain the finer points of gemstone pricing if you want more information. Color Blue gemstones come in a wide range of colors, from pale aquasto rich dark blues. Even if you think you already know the colors a particular gemstone comes in, take a look at the color ranges listed above. Many gemstones come in a wider range of colors than you might have expected. Sapphires, for example, are famous for their velvety blue color, but they can also occur in lighter shades of blue. You may be interested in a pure blue stone or a blue gemstone with shades of other colors, such as green or violet. Hardness A gemstone's hardness is another important factor to think about. You should not purchase a piece of jewelry with agemstone that hasa hardness of less than 7.0 if you plan on wearing the jewelry daily because the stone could become scratched or cracked. (An exception is if the stone has been placed in a special setting to protect it from damage.) So, for jewelry like bracelets and rings, that often get bumped, choose a stone with a higher hardness, like sapphire or blue topaz, or only wear the jewelry on special occasions. Softer stones set into earrings or necklaces can be worn more frequently, but you should still be careful to avoid damaging them. Jewelry Types Some gemstones are frequently used in the same types of jewelry. Agate, for example, is often used in necklace pendants, while sapphire's brilliant sparkle and high price mean a single stone is often set into a ring.If you're looking for a particular type of jewelry, you may want to choose a gemstone that's often used for those pieces.

Sunday, February 16, 2020

Managerial Applications of Technology (Virtual Workforce) 3 Assignment

Managerial Applications of Technology (Virtual Workforce) 3 - Assignment Example Remote workers need to have proper communication with their colleagues, the managers, and other teams or team members in the organization. Technology also provides support to organize through availing IT services and appliances which makes remote workers more effective. There are a number of advantages of using virtual employees. One advantage is that it reduces the amount of physical space that an organization allocated to its employees. Virtual employees have flexibility which enables such organizations to have flexibility to some extent (Tedesco, 2013). For instance, a virtual employee would not be affected, by any physical disturbance in the organization’s premises. The other thing is that virtual employees can be more productive because of less commuting time. The disadvantage of virtual employees is that they have minimal interactions with their colleagues thus it can be hard for them to work together. It is also hard for an organization to motivate virtual and protect them from distractions. Given that the usage of virtual employees has both advantages and disadvantages it is good to come up with strategies to maximize the advantages and minimize the disadvantages. An organization can do that by improving their communication with the virtual workers to make sure that they feel like a part of the organization. For things like motivation and distraction an organization can organize seminars where they can advise the virtual employees on how to best manage time and avoid distractions. To maximize on their output an organization can set goals for them to meet in certain duration (Amigoni & Gurvis,